by Vladimir VARLAMOV, Dr. Sc. (Phys. & Math.), laboratory head, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University; Boris ISHKHANOV, Dr. Sc. (Phys. & Math.), chair head of the general nuclear physics, Department of Physics, Moscow State University; Vladimir NEDOREZOV, Dr. Sc. (Phys. & Math.), laboratory head, RAS Laboratory of Nuclear Research, Moscow
Nuclear physics and first of all, electromagnetic interaction of nuclei are associated with the name of Acad. Dmitry Skobeltsyn. Fundamentals of these research areas were laid down in 1940, when he organized an Experimental Chair of Nuclear Physics, the first one at Moscow State University and in the nation; these studies received further impetus in 1946 when Skobeltsyn came up with the initiative to set up an Institute of Nuclear Physics at Moscow University. In the 1950s, the Lebedev Physics Institute (FIAN) headed by Skobeltsyn explored new avenues in research of electromagnetic interaction of nuclei. In the early 1960s, the Nuclear Physics Institute and the Laboratory of Photonuclear Reactions set up at the RAS Institute of Nuclear Research became leaders among global photonuclear physics research centers.
GIANT DIPOLE RESONANCE
Atomic nuclei are studied by means of different research methods. One of the most effective methods involves bombardment by gamma quanta, i.e. by high-energy photons with a wavelength comparable to the nucleus in size. Its main advantage is that the properties of electromagnetic interaction of nuclei have been well studied; that is why it is not so hard to separate the two processes--the absorption of photons by the atomic nucleus and the subsequent dynamics of the excited nucleus.
Studies of electromagnetic interaction were begun in 1959, when a 35 MeV electron accelerator--betatron-was commissioned at the Nuclear Physics Institute. The research work was carried on under the guidance of Prof. Valerian Shevchenko. At FIAN ... Читать далее