Libmonster ID: TJ-603
Educational Institution \ Organization: Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

On February 6, 2002, the Sector of Pakistan held a round table on the current socio - economic situation in Pakistan. Presentations were made by S. N. Kamenev and I. V. Zhmuid (both from the Institute of Physics and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences).

S. N. Kamenev in his report "Current economic situation of Pakistan" noted a slowdown in economic growth to 2.6% in the 2000/01 fiscal year (the fiscal year in Pakistan is from July 1 of this calendar year to June 30 of the next year) due to the impact of a number of global destabilizing factors. Thus, due to the drought, agricultural production decreased by almost 3%: the production of almost all major food and industrial crops - wheat, rice, sugar cane, cotton-decreased. This, in turn, led to stagnation in the country's leading industry - textiles and, as a result, to a reduction in exports of cotton products.

The drought also led to a reduction in electricity generation. There was a need to increase purchases of energy carriers abroad, which contributed to a significant increase in foreign exchange costs for their import, since Pakistan meets its oil needs only by 12-14% due to its own production.

As for per capita income, S. N. Kamenev noted that in recent years it has been declining (in US dollars) - from $ 513 in 1995 to $ 430 in 2001. It's related. According to S. N. Kamenev, this is due to the fall in the exchange rate of the national currency against the dollar (61 rupees per $ 1 in early 2002), as well as the deterioration of international trade conditions for Pakistan.

At the same time, S. N. Kamenev stressed that the negative effects of the drought did not have time to affect the development of industry and foreign trade: industrial growth in 2000/01 was 8%, while the trade balance improved in foreign trade, and foreign trade turnover increased. Pakistan's leading trading partners are the United States, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. There are positive trends in the expansion of bilateral relations with Russia: in December 2001, the Pakistani Badar-P satellite was successfully launched from Baikonur by a Russian Zenit-2 carrier rocket, negotiations are underway on cooperation in the field of fisheries, as well as on the possibility of assembling an Oka car from Russian components in Pakistan. Trends of expansion of trade turnover between Russia and Pakistan are outlined.

I. V. Zhmuida in her report "Changes in the economy of Pakistan after the events of September 11" noted that President of Pakistan P. Musharraf is taking measures to strengthen the country's economy. In particular, the Central Tax Collection Office is being renovated, and a universal sales tax has been introduced, which has led to an increase in treasury revenues.

Although Pakistan is still experiencing rising unemployment and an increase in the number of poor people, the President and government are trying to keep the economic situation under control. Despite the fact that the IMF has allowed Pakistan to increase its budget deficit, however, recently there have been positive trends in the Pakistani economy: an increase in foreign investment, a reduction in the budget deficit, and a decrease in smuggling.

The following speakers took part in the discussion of the reports: P. M. Mukimjanova, I. N. Serenko, V. N. Moskalenko (Institute of Higher Education of the Russian Academy of Sciences), S. S. Goncharenko (Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation). P. M. Mukimjanova noted that Pakistan is interested in developing economic ties with the countries of Central Asia, which in turn are making efforts to get access to the Karakoram highway. In March 1995, Paki-

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China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan have signed an agreement on mutual transit of transport through their territories. It provides for the development of road communication along the route Alma-Ata-Bishkek-Kashgar-Khonjerab Pass. Pakistan section: Karakoram Highway-Islamabad-Karachi. The Kara-Korum highway is still used to a limited extent, but the parties are taking measures to activate traffic on this highway. According to S. S. Goncharenko, Pakistan is interested in purchasing Russian timber, which could be delivered via the Karakoram highway. I. N. Serenko said that recently there has been a tendency to strengthen economic ties between Russia and Pakistan. In January 2002, a delegation of Russian entrepreneurs representing about 70 private trading companies and firms visited Pakistan, where they met with their economic partners and representatives of state structures, in particular with the Governor of Sindh province. This visit creates a solid foundation for mutually beneficial expansion of economic cooperation between the two countries. It is expected to increase to $ 30 million. private investment in various joint projects and trade between Russia and Pakistan.

The difficult economic situation in Pakistan in recent years has led to a reduction in public spending in the social sphere, including in the field of education. The involvement of the private sector in this area partially solves the problem: in 2000/01, private investment in the development of education amounted to 0.66% of GNP, while the share of private entrepreneurship in primary education reached 19.93%, in lower secondary school-9.05%, in full secondary school-4.67%.

According to I. N. Serenko, according to P. Musharraf, poverty, underdevelopment of general education schools, high population growth are the main reasons for the recent expansion of the traditional religious education system in the country. According to I. N. Serenko, about 6 thousand religious schools promote extremism and train militants to conduct jihad. In his address to the nation on January 12, 2002, Musharraf stressed the need to reform the traditional theological education system so that religious educational institutions could no longer be "used to spread political and sectarian prejudices." In this regard, it is planned to introduce state control over the activities of religious educational institutions, their management and financing, as well as make changes to the content of educational programs.

At the end of the discussion, Zav. President of Pakistan Vladimir Moskalenko said that the economic situation in Pakistan has been improving recently. Gold and foreign exchange reserves are being replenished, foreign debt to Western countries is being reduced, and investment from these countries is increasing. Pakistan places special hopes on the United States. The latter have lifted all sanctions they imposed on Pakistan after it tested a nuclear weapon and carried out a military coup. Pakistan's relations with Western countries have significantly expanded, but, according to V. N. Moskalenko, US cooperation with Pakistan is not yet moving into the military sphere, unlike India, with which Washington is developing military and military-technical ties. The main reason for this is US fears of worsening current relations with India.

V. V. KRAVCHENKO

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INSTITUTE OF AFRICA, RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

On November 28-30, 2001, the first All-Russian scientific conference "School of Young Africanist" was held. The conference is organized by the Russian Academy of Sciences ' Scientific Council on Africa, the Institute of Africa of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ISAA at Moscow State University, St. Petersburg and Saratov State Universities. The main task of the "Young Africanist School" is to preserve the traditions of Russian African studies and its continuity. The conference was attended by young scientists, postgraduates and students from the Institute of Africa, ISAA, MGIMO of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, IMLI RAS, RUDN University, Academy of Public Administration, St. Petersburg, Saratov and Tyumen State Universities.

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Speakers at the plenary session were: A. B. Davidson, Director of the Center for the History of Africa of the Institute of African Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Director of ISAA L. V. Geveling, Deputy Director of ISAA. Director of the Institute of Africa V. G. Shubin, Director of the Center for Civilizational and Regional Studies I. V. Sledzevsky, Associate Professor of the Department of Philology of St. Petersburg State University G. A. Balashova.

A. B. Davidson spoke about the traditions of transferring experience in the scientific community, about the scientists who were at the origins of Russian African studies. I. V. Sledzevsky in his report "Africa and modern scientific knowledge" highlighted the current trends in the development of African studies.

At the first session of the section of economists and historians, A. L. Sapuntsov (post-graduate student of the State Academy of Sciences) made a speech. management) with the report "The role of MNTS in improving the competitiveness of African economies". B. E. Bunko (Institute of Africa) conducted a comparative analysis of the development of oil industries in Africa and Russia in the 1990s, showed the coincidence of a number of trends, as well as significant differences and features of this industry in Russia and African countries. E. F. Lukmanova (Institute of Africa) touched upon the unexpected but interesting topic "Export of fresh cut flowers from Africa", in which she highlighted the history of export of this product from Africa, noting the countries that occupy leading positions in the flower industry.

The meeting was continued by historians and cultural experts. Student of the State University of Humanities at IVI RAS LL In her report "Ideas of Afrocentrism in the research of African scientists S. A. Diop and N. K. Asante," Yusova tried to determine what constitutes afrocentrism - black racism or the next stage of the national liberation struggle, but at a higher, spiritual level, or a way of self-expression, the formation of the so-called African national idea. D. A. Khalturina (Institute of Africa) based her report " A cross-cultural study of the impact of intense military activity on the status of women (on the example of African societies) "on the analysis of the Standard Cross Cultural Sample database, which includes societies from all cultural regions of the world. She illustrated universal cross-cultural patterns with examples of pre-colonial, post-colonial and post-colonial African societies. N. A. Zherlitsyn (Center for Historical, National and Cultural Studies of the Institute of Africa) in the report " Tunisian piracy and Russian policy in the Mediterranean at the end of the XVIII-XIX centuries. Based on the materials of the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire, " traced the evolution of Russia's policy in the Mediterranean Basin region for more than 50 years. The archive materials allowed her to recreate details of the internal politics of the Tunisian Regency. Graduate student of the Institute of Africa E. B. Demintseva in her speech "The formation of the Maghreb diaspora in France in the 60-80 years of the XX century" highlighted the history of the development of the North African diaspora in France. She noted that at a certain stage of development, the Maghreb community in France becomes an integral organism, a special part of society, a certain structural unit with its own ethno-cultural features and features.

The meeting concluded with a discussion on the oil-producing policy of African countries, Afrocentrism, France's policy towards North African immigrants, as well as prospects for economic cooperation between African countries and Russia.

The second session opened with a presentation by A. A. Maslov and V. V. Ilyanin, students of St. Petersburg State University ,entitled "Models of Politogenesis in Western Sudan". They noted that the relative geographical isolation of the region and at the same time constant migration and the presence of influential "neighbors" influenced the course of the historical process, models of integration and political genesis, and the importance of certain state-forming institutions. House's" urban revolution " defined the direction of integration. Territorial organization replaced clan organization as a result of a qualitative change in the composition of the population. Post-graduate student of St. Petersburg State University O. A. Bulatov devoted his report "Politogenesis in West Africa (hausa)" to the West African community and the role of man in it. The report of A. B. Melnikov (Tyumen State University) "Political parties of Ghana in the 90s of the XX century" emphasized that, despite the weakness of socio-economic and political structures, immaturity of the democratic tradition and the influence of ethno-regional components in Ghana by the beginning of the XXI century, a multi-party system was formed as the main element of a democratic legal system. states. ISAA student A.V. Denisov in his speech " Conflict in De-

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Democratic Republic of the Congo: 1998-2001 " analyzed the causes of these conflicts: ethnic, regional and economic. B. N. Leonov (St. Petersburg State University) reviewed the events that took place in Nigeria from October 1999 to the present, namely, the legislative adoption and introduction of Sharia legislation and Sharia courts in several states of Nigeria, as well as the interethnic and inter-confessional conflicts caused by this.

R. C. Ekeoma (RUDN University) showed the relevance of the topic "Socio-cultural factors in the formation of family and marriage relations in modern Nigeria (on the example of ibo)", since it is traditional institutions and, above all, the family that most retain elements of cultural traditions, social and moral security of the individual in conditions of social and political instability. A. S. Zdanevin (St. Petersburg State University) in his report "The origins of the emergence and spread of Islam in South Africa (XVII-XVII centuries)" noted that the influence of Islam on culture was carried out through a system of legal and moral norms, strict adherence to which is characteristic of Islam more than for other religions. The topic of the presentation by A. Y. Siim (St. Petersburg State University) is "Arabic literary monuments in Afrikaans. Their role in the history of the Kaapstad Muslim community." V. Y. Hritinin (St. Petersburg State University) in his report "The administrative system of the Cape Colony" considered the period starting from 1652, when the Dutch East India Company established a supply post for its ships near the Cape of Good Hope, and ending in 1795, when the free burghers rebelled against the power of the NOIC and proclaimed the creation of independent republics. Baranov (Saratov State University) in his report "Missionaries in South Africa: the evolution of the concept of "civilization" of Africans in the XIX century" analyzed the views of R. Moffat, D. Philip, C. Brownley and D. Stewart. He traced a certain evolution in the views that prevailed among missionary societies on the question of the" civilization " of the African population of South Africa. Graduate student of the Institute of Africa A. Y. Chernyaev made a report "Economic policy in African States".

The third session focused on South Africa's historical, economic and political issues. ISAA graduate student L. V. Ivanova traced how the mass media in Russia reflect the situation in modern Africa. V. V. Gribanova (Institute of Africa) described the education system in South Africa and the struggle against apartheid in the 1970s and 1980s. M. V. Sivograkov (Institute of Africa) examined the relations of the Soviet Union with the national liberation movements of South-West Africa (Namibia) in the mid - to late 1960s. D. A. Shornikov (ISAA) in his report "The formation of the black bourgeoisie in South Africa" identified several stages of its evolution, some features and prospects for its further development. Natalia Shevchenko (MGIMO of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation) gave an overview of the state of the South African economy. She noted the complexities of Russian-South African relations, the role of De Beers in these relations, and drew conclusions about the prospects for their development.

Several reports were devoted to the political problems of South Africa: T. Dubina (ISAA) "Foreign policy of South Africa: relations with Great Britain from 1961 to 2001", N. V. Stepanchenko (Institute of Africa) " Military policy of France in Sub-Saharan Africa (1990s)", A. V. Yakunina (Institute of African Studies) "Inkata as a regional party: myth and reality", T. G. Turkina (MAE RAS, St. Petersburg) "On the characterization of Yoruba kinship term systems".

The fourth session was attended by philologists. O. G. Novikov spoke about the specific manifestations of the Afro-American counterculture in the mid -20th century, and V. A. Mironova (both at the Institute of Africa) noted the role of the state in resolving the North - South conflict in Sudan.

Presentations were also made by: N. S. Frolova (IMLI) "Efras Kezilakhabi as a Modernist: on the question of the stadiality of the literary process in Africa", I. G. Biryukova (ISAA) "On the question of the adjective in Bantu languages", O. I. Koshcheeva (St. Petersburg State University) " Expression of the semantic roles of agent and patient in some Bantu languages (for example, Ganda)", Ill. Zhuk (St. Petersburg State University) " Causative derivation in the gu-ro language (Cote d'Ivoire)", T. V. Nikitina (St. Petersburg State University) "Logophoric pronouns of the Uan language (based on the materials of the expedition to Cote d'Ivoire, Yantar-March 2001)", A. E. Cherdyntsev (St. Petersburg State University) "Polyfunctional morpheme aU in Russian dan (guetavo dialect)", E. V. Apanasenko (ISAA) "Language situation and term-making processes in the modern Hausa language".

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In conclusion, the Director of the Institute of Africa, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. RAS A. M. Vasiliev expressed hope that such conferences will become a tradition. D. M. Bondarenko, L. Ya.Prokopenko, and N. V. Gromova expressed their wishes and parting words to the young scientists, who emphasized that the first experience of the "School of Young Africanist" was successful.

E. B. DEMINTSEVA

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NUSANTARA SOCIETY

December 24, 2001 Two reports were presented at the meeting of the society. Zav. A. Drugov , Department of History and Politics of the Department of Southeast Asia of the Institute of Political Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences, made a report "Indonesia, some features of post-authoritarian development". Authoritarian rule in Indonesia, in his opinion, is characterized by both positive features (positive changes in the economic and social structure of society) and negative ones (discrediting the government and the law, deforming political power in general, an ideological vacuum, "shadow politics", an unprecedented scale of corruption). In the aftermath of President Suharto's departure, there was strife among the political elite, whose actions were dictated not by the need for radical changes in the country, but by intrigues that prevented further economic recovery. He also noted a number of difficult challenges facing the Megawati Sukarnoputri Government. The problem with provincial autonomy is that the significant concessions made by the central government are used by the local elite for self-serving purposes that contradict the interests of both the regions and the center. The centrifugal forces not only do not weaken, but also continue to grow, creating a threat to federalism (Riau, Bali and Kalimantan now join the traditionally separatist Aceh region). It is difficult for Megawati to choose political forces as the mainstay of her power, despite the fact that her own base (the Democratic Party of Indonesia [Struggle]) is not strong enough. A lockdown with the military and Golkar could lead - and is already leading - to a rollback of political reforms.

At the same time, there is a threat that the mood of the masses, tired of democratic anarchy, may turn to opposition. In addition, all this is happening against the background of the struggle for the masses between the official elite (priyai) and the Muslim elite (santri), which can not but cause certain concerns. Under these circumstances, the Indonesian president is trying to find a way to coexist with the Muslim community. According to the speaker, the main question now is whether the political potential of the president and her allies (whose reputation is significantly damaged by the Sukhartovsky legacy) will be sufficient to solve these serious problems.

The report of L. G. Goryacheva , an employee of the Department of Written Monuments of the Peoples of the East of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, was devoted to the international project "Malay Concordance Project", which has been implemented since the beginning of 1990 on the initiative of J. Proudfoot, an employee of the Australian National University (Canberra). The goal of the project is to create a convenient system of universal references for Malay-language written monuments that meets the modern capabilities of computer technology. At the moment, about 50 major Malay works of various genres - fiction, chronicles, legal documents-have already been processed and entered into the database. An Internet user anywhere in the world, without having written monuments at his disposal, can use any given word (a common name, a proper name denoting a toponym, a folklore, literary character, or a historical figure) to get all the information about its frequency in the contextual environment and its combination capabilities in all the written monuments involved. This project can become a unique source study and research tool, replacing the library volumes and a lot of human resources. The speaker is the only Russian participant in this project, and her contribution to the data bank is the Malay "Novella Si Miskin". She is currently preparing another major work in Malay ,The Crown of Kings (Taj al-Salatin).

T. V. DOROFEEVA

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On January 23, 2002, V. F. Urlyapov, an employee of the Institute of Information Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who spent the last four years in Malaysia on diplomatic work, made a report at the meeting of the Nusantara Society. In his report "Results of the 20-year rule of Mahathir Mohamad", he described the current situation in the country, the situation in the ruling party and the relationship between the authorities and the opposition. The speaker assesses the position of the current Prime Minister as strong, despite the scandal in the ruling elite of the OMNO party associated with his former deputy in the party and government, Anwar Ibrahim, and considers the possibility of an opposition victory in the 2004 general elections as very insignificant. Despite Mahathir's advanced years and repeated assurances that he is ready to leave his post, it is unlikely to expect a change of power in Malaysia in the near future, since, according to the political scientist, there is no real alternative to the current charismatic leader in the country. The speaker also highlighted the problem of international terrorism and Malaysia's position on this issue. He answered the audience's questions about the development of Malaysian-Russian relations and spoke about the upcoming signing of a bilateral agreement in the field of culture, education and tourism.

At the same meeting, Ami Intoyo, an associate professor at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, the daughter of a prominent Indonesian poet Intoyo, who emigrated after the events of 1965, first to China, and then to the USSR, made a touching story about Indonesia. She, who left her homeland as a ten-year-old girl, was able to visit her native places for the first time only 45 years later.

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On February 26, 2002, at the regular meeting of the Malay - Indonesian readings held within the framework of the Ethnographic Commission of the Moscow Geographical Society, a report by L. F. Pakhomova, a leading employee of the Institute of Information Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, "Southeast Asia: difficulties in overcoming the crisis"was heard. She described the features, scale and consequences of the 1997-1999 monetary and financial crisis in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, as well as highlighted ways and methods of dealing with crisis phenomena and assessed their effectiveness. Special attention was paid to the decline in economic activity in Malaysia and Singapore in 2001 under the influence of the worsening global economic situation.

These phenomena and a number of others, according to the speaker, are related to the process of globalization, which required the countries of the Southeast Asian region to develop new measures on a multilateral and bilateral basis, including such as the formation of a currency swap and the achievement of an agreement on the formation of an East Asian Free Trade Zone based on the "ASEAN+3" formula (Japan, China and South Korea). This means a significant expansion of the geographical boundaries of the sub-region for integration processes and the possible formation of a new architecture of the monetary and financial system in the medium term.

T. V. DOROFEEVA

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KHAKASSIA

From October 6 to 12, 2001, an international scientific conference was held in Abakan, dedicated to the analysis and discussion of topical problems of the history of the Sayano-Altai and adjacent territories of North and Central Asia. The conference was organized and conducted by the Institute of History and Law of N. F. Katanov Khakass State University. Scientists, historians, archaeologists, ethnographers, philologists, Turkologists from scientific centers, academic institutes, universities, pedagogical universities, museums of Abakan, Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk, Novokuznetsk, St. Petersburg participated in its work,

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Kyzyl, from the CIS and non-CIS countries, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, the Netherlands.

The participants of the conference were welcomed by the Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Khakassia A. I. Lebed.

The conference participants focused on topical issues of ethnogenesis and cultural genesis of the Sayano-Altai peoples, as well as debatable issues of South Siberian ethnonymy.

V. Ya.Butanaev (Abakan) made a report summarizing the results of many years of research in the field of ethnogenesis and ethnic history of the Turkic-speaking peoples of the Sayan-Altai region. According to the results of studying historical documents, ethnographic materials and information about the historical memory of the indigenous population of Khakassia, which is reflected in the works of folklore, the speaker came to the conclusion that modern Khakases formed into a single nation in the late Middle Ages and modern times, when the Minusinsk basin formed an ethnopolitical union headed by the Yenisei Kyrgyz, known in written sources of the XVII-XVIII centuries under the name "Hongorai". V. Ya. Butanaev criticized the unfounded attempts of some Khakass scientists to artificially "age out" the period of formation of the Khakass people, to attribute to it the creation of an ancient urban and settled - agricultural civilization, which is inconsistent with historical and ethnographic data. Adoption in the early 20s of the XX century. as an ethnonym for the artificial term "Khakasy" of Chinese origin, the speaker called it an unsuccessful "experiment that took an unjustifiably long time". He suggested discussing at the conference the adoption of the term "khoorai"as a self-designation by the indigenous population of Khakassia.

During the breakout sessions, scientists from the Institute of History and Law of Khakass State University and the Khakass Research Institute of Language, Literature and History made presentations on the history of science, historiography and source studies of the history of Khakassia. A. N. Gladyshevsky (Abakan) analyzed the scientific and political activities of the ethnographer, leader of the national movement in Khakassia during the revolution and Civil war.

war of S. D. Mainagashev, who died as a result of repressions. Yu. S. Shavlyaeva (Abakan) introduced the conference participants to the views of scientists of the XIX - early XX centuries. on the" Siberian roots " of Christianity. V. N. Asochakova (Abakan) drew the attention of researchers of the history of Khakassia to such sources as church records, which contain information about the number of indigenous people who converted to Orthodoxy. S. A. Ugdyzhekov's report (Abakan) presented the results of Russian historical science's study of the social structure of the Yenisei Kyrgyz during the early Middle Ages.

Dmitry Karachakov (Abakan) introduced the conference participants to the plans for preparing a generalizing work on the history of Khakassia in the XX century.N. N. Medvedeva (Abakan) analyzed program documents and other types of sources reflecting the activities of modern political parties in the Republic of Khakassia.

K. Konkobayev (Bishkek) provided basic information on the number, culture and language characteristics of various ethnic groups of Kyrgyz living in China. In his opinion, these data are of great importance for reconstructing the process of ethnogenesis and ethnic history of the modern Kyrgyz people and the Turkic-speaking peoples of the Sayan-Altai region.

A group of reports was devoted to the study of the problems of medieval history and culture of the Yenisei Kyrgyz, the study of military affairs and cultural relations of the ancient and medieval population of Sayano-Altai with the countries of the East.

V. Y. Vasilkov (St. Petersburg) analyzed and identified the plot of the image on a bronze mirror discovered during the excavation of the Scythian monument Rago-zikha-1 in the Steppe Altai. The speaker convincingly proved that the image illustrates one of the subjects of Indian mythology. This discovery, in his opinion, testifies to the cultural ties between India and the Sayano-Altai in ancient times. The report of Yu. V. Shiroka (Novokuznetsk) was devoted to the peculiarities of ethno-cultural development in the Middle Tom region during the developed Middle Ages, at the beginning of the second millennium AD. Report of Yu. S. Khudyakov (Novosibirsk) It was dedicated to the arming of the Yenisei Kyrgyz and Kyshtyms in the late Middle Ages. The author of the report's systematization and classification of weapons allowed him to characterize-

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to study the complex of military means and identify the features of the military art of the Kyrgyz and Kyshtym in the period under review.

Yu. G. Petrenko (Abakan), based on the method of experimental analysis for evaluating the effectiveness of blades, characterized medieval bladed weapons from the Minusinsk basin. N. V. Kotozhekov (Abakan) presented the basic information on the history of studying hunting tools and methods among the medieval population of the Middle Yenisei. Questions of ethnogenesis and ethnic history of modern Khakas according to historical folklore were covered by I. I. Butanaeva (Abakan).

A number of reports analyzed various forms of traditional culture of the Khakass, Tuvan, and Russian (old-timers) populations of the Sayano-Altai region. Archimacheva (Abakan) noted the elements of religious syncretism that were reflected in the funerary rites of the indigenous population of Khakassia in the period of ethnographic modernity. The peculiarities of religious consciousness and the current religious situation among the Khakass people were highlighted by E. V. Anzhiganova (Abakan). V. N. Tuguzhekova (Abakan) spoke about the activities of national cultural centers in the Republic of Khakassia.

The problems of ethnocultural interaction and mutual influence of the Russian old-timers and Khakass populations in the period of ethnographic modernity were analyzed by A. L. Vernik (Abakan). One of the leading experts on the history of Russian exploration of Southern Siberia, G. F. Bykonya (Krasnoyarsk), took an active part in the conference.

The report of J. Kalafat and S. Ogon (both from Turkey), which considered the problems of interrelation of the cultures of the Turkic peoples of Sayan - Altai and Turkey in the context of cultural globalization processes, aroused interest. According to the speakers, the peoples of Turkic origin should resist these processes and " rely on the civilization of the Turkic steppe, the foundation of which was laid in the Altai."

Within the framework of the conference, a "round table" was held, where participants discussed issues of ethnonymy. V. Ya. Butanaev (Abakan) stressed the need to replace the modern name " Khakasy "with the historical ethnonym"khoorai". S. P. Uluturgasheva and V. E. Mainagasheva (both Abakan) presented a well-known but largely outdated argument in favor of the historicity of the term "Khakas". V. K. Chertykov (Abakan) did not agree with the opinion that the term "Khoorai" belongs to the ancestors of modern Khakas. Yu. S. Khudyakov and K. Konkobaev highlighted the results of the latest research by sinologists on the study of ancient and medieval Chinese terminology denoting the population of the Minusinsk basin. According to the research of the Russian scientist S. E. Yakhontov and the Chinese scientist Hu Zhenhua, published at the scientific congress in Bishkek in August 2001, all Chinese terms denote the ethnonym "Kyrgyz", and the word "Khakas" is absent in Chinese sources.

According to S. A. Ugdyzhekov, the proponents of the term "Khakas" rely on outdated arguments of the 1950s and information from compiled sources, without taking into account the results of the analysis of the entire set of sources on this problem, while the scientific community has long recognized the historical validity of the ethnonym "Kyrgyz" for the medieval population of the Middle Yenisei.

In conclusion, I would like to mention the high scientific and organizational level of the conference.

Yu. S. KHUDYAKOV

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DELHI

On November 6-8, 2001, a joint Indian - Russian seminar "Three Millennia of Contacts between India, Central Asia and Russia" was held, organized by the Indian Council for Historical Research (Delhi) and the Joint Russian-Indian Commission for Cooperation in the Field of Social Sciences.

The workshop was scheduled to be held in the spring, but was postponed due to the earthquake in Gujarat at the request of the Indian side. Since then, the Indian Historical Research Council has suffered a heavy loss: Professor B. R. Grover, who headed the council for the last few years, has died. October 24th

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The permanent Deputy Chairman of the Joint Russian-Indian Commission for Cooperation in the Field of Social Sciences, G. G. Kotovsky, whose last task was to prepare this seminar, has died. At the opening ceremony of the seminar, all the participants paid tribute to the memory of these historians who made a great contribution to the development of cooperation between scientists in India and Russia.

The Russian delegation, consisting of seven people, was headed by T. L. Shaumyan, and the Indian delegation was headed by Devendra Kaushik. Professor A. K. Narayan was the chairman of the organizing committee of the seminar.

32 reports were presented at the seminar. The increased interest of Indian scholars in the history and history of relations between India and the Central Asian countries is evidenced by the fact that out of 27 reports of Indian historians, 23 were somehow related to these problems. Devendra Kaushik's report "Central Asia - the most important link in Indo-Russian relations"focused on the main milestones in the history of contacts between the two countries, starting with the data provided by archaeologists and related to the Harappan culture. Although Russians have heard about the riches of India since the time of Kievan Rus, the author attributes more or less regular contacts between the countries to the end of the XVII century. Noting the main events and names in the history of these relations over the following centuries, D. Kaushik introduced the participants to promising projects for connecting the railway network of India and Russia through the territory of Turkmenistan, Iran or China.

A characteristic feature of the seminar was a great interest in the relations that existed between India and the former Soviet republics. So, about 10 reports dealt with the history of contacts with former Soviet republics, and only one was devoted to trade with Afghanistan. This is a report by Vere Good Gill, in which she noted that by the end of the XIX - beginning of the XX century. thanks to the construction of railways in Central Asia, Russia's trade turnover with Afghanistan increased, which cannot be said about India, since the constant tribal uprisings in the north-west of the country made any trade enterprise too risky. T. L. Shaumyan (Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences) presented a report on the problems of Central Asia, in which the author showed one of the acts of the "Big Game", the rivalry between Great Britain and Russia in Central Asia, when England exaggerated the thesis about the "Russian threat to India" and considered the trip of the Tibetan mission to Russia in this context.

A large number of reports by Indian scientists dealt with common problems in the history of contacts between India and our country, for example: P. P. Sharma "Russia and Central Asia: a Eurasian perspective", Tabasum Firdaus "India and Central Asia", etc. He also criticized Russian Marxist historians for their views on the issue. Nirmala Joshi ("India and Russia: historical ties in the XX century") defined the nature of these relations as deep and permanent, which was further developed during the Soviet period and became more versatile after India gained independence. The strategic partnership and the recent signing of the Moscow Declaration is a continuation of the tradition of expanding these relations. The same problem was discussed in the report of A. G. Volodin (MGIMO of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation) "Strategic partnership between Russia and India as a historical necessity", in which he tried to prove that at present, in the world community, where horizontal ties are becoming increasingly important, such major state entities as Brazil, China, India and Russia, which have a wide field of cooperation, are becoming important. for cooperation in various fields of economy, politics, and public life. Topic of the report by V. V. Chernovskaya (Intern. institute of Economics and Law. Yaroslavl State University) - the current situation of Indian business in the regions of Russia. She showed different approaches and forms of cooperation between Indian companies in such industries as gem processing, pharmaceutical industry, gas and oil production, etc.and described the difficulties that arise in the way of such cooperation.

Several presentations at the conference addressed specific episodes in the history of contacts between countries: Mahavir Singh's "Raja Mahendra Pratap: Connecting India and Russia", Gulati's "Shelters and Hospitality on the way from Khorezm to Sindh according to Ibn Batuta". Speha Mahajan ("Creating Borders in Central Asia: Anglo-Russian Delineation

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on the Pamirs (1893-1896)") considered the problem of defining the borders of Afghanistan as one of the aspects of the" Big Game " in Central Asia, showed the complexity of this process and the positions of different countries that had their interests in this point of Central Asia. S. Gopal ("Indians in Central Asia in the first Two Decades of the twentieth century") noted that the majority of Indians were either moneylenders, wholesale and small traders, some of them taught Hindustani or served as translators. After the 1917 revolution, Tashkent briefly became a haven for Indian nationalists. In the future, the policy of the Soviet state forced some Indians to move to Moscow, and others to China. T. N. Zagorodnikova (IB RAS) spoke about the life vicissitudes of Ramchandra Balaji, who claimed to be related to the hero of the Indian National Uprising of 1856-1858. Nana Sahib; about how he got to England, Persia and Turkey, and then in 1878-1880 to Russia, about his attempts to inspire the liberation of his homeland from colonial dependence with the help of Russian weapons. Mr. Ryzhenkov (Russian State University) archive of ancient Acts) described the complex process of forming the image of India in the military and official environment of the Russian Empire during the XIX century: from complete ignorance and a semi-mythical idea of a certain country full of wealth, to creating an image close to reality and about the sources of this information. V. P. Kashin (IB RAS) analyzed the secret report of 1949 by the first Soviet ambassador to India, K. V. Novikov, who tried to rethink the preconceived ideas of the party elite about the processes taking place in India that gained independence, about its leaders, about the situation of the Communist Party of India and the working masses, and gave a fairly objective picture of the situation in the country at that time.

A large number of reports of the Indian delegation (about 10) were devoted to ancient and early medieval history, hence the rather unusual name of the seminar, which sometimes makes Russian historians smile, " Three Millennia of contacts.. "D. N. Tripathi in his report" Central Asia and the Indo-Aryans", based on archaeological findings and analysis of toponyms mentioned in the Rig Veda, showed that contacts between India and the south-western part of Central Asia go back to the period of 2-1 millennia BC, and these contacts played an important role in the development of culture both regions. S. P. Gupta ("Central Asia and India in ancient times from the 3rd millennium BC to the 1st millennium AD") refers the beginning of these relations to even more remote times - the 3rd millennium BC. A. K. Beg ("The status of Sine Tables in India and Central Asia") gave an example of contacts between these regions in the field of trigonometry and astronomy and concluded that Central Asian scientists not only adopted and simplified, but also enriched the traditional knowledge of the Greeks and Indians in the field of astronomy, and thereby contributed to the development of new technologies. scientific heritage of mankind. Unfortunately, our indology was not represented by a single report on the ancient and medieval history of India.

In closing remarks, A. K. Narayan and the heads of both delegations highly appreciated the presentations delivered at the seminar and suggested making such meetings regular.

T. N. ZAGORODNIKOVA


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Chronicle notes // Dushanbe: Digital Library of Tajikistan (LIBRARY.TJ). Updated: 28.06.2024. URL: https://library.tj/m/articles/view/Chronicle-notes (date of access: 18.07.2024).

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